Common Eye Diseases & How To Cure Them
Macular Degeneration, Retinal Tears, Holes, and Detachments, Glaucoma, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Hypertension Retinopathy are all very serious eye issues that should not be left ignored or untreated. If your eye is irritated and has any of the symptoms listed below please contact Dr. Amy Walden & Associated for an Indianapolis Eye Exam immediately. Do not try to diagnose it yourself and take the care you think you need. Leave that up to us and schedule an appointment! Please read further below on the Description, Symptoms and Treatments of these eye diseases.
There are two types of Macular Degeneration (MD), dry and wet. Dry macular degeneration is when the tissue of the macula gradually becomes thin and eventually stops functioning properly. This can be difficult to detect in its early stages. Wet macular degeneration is when fluids leave from newly formed blood vessels under the macula and blur central vision.
- A gradual loss of ability to see objects clearly
- Objects appear distorted in shape; straight lines look wavy or crooked
- Loss of color vision
- A dark or empty appears in the center of vision
The loss of the central vision cannot be restored. However, for patients with dry MD, there may be a link between diet and the profession of dry MD. Lowering fat content and increasing the amount of dark leafy vegetables can slow vision loss.
If diagnosed early enough wet MD can be treated with laser treatment, such as photocoagulation.
Retinal Tears, Holes, and Detachments
Retinal detachment occurs when the retina is pulled away from the layer of oxygen and nourishment-providing blood vessel. This can be caused by the following:
- The Vitreous (the gel-like material in your eye) to contract and tear the retina
- Advanced Diabetes
- Inflammatory Eye Disorder
- Sudden flashes of light in the affected eye
- A shadow or curtain over a portion of the visual field
- The sudden appearance of “floaters” – small bits of debris in vision that look like spots, hairs, or strings
This is an emergency situation, if this occurs, you should seek medical attention immediately if you notice any of these symptoms. An Indianpolis Eye Exam can diagnosis your issues.
- Laser surgery (Photocoagulation)- the laser will burn the area around the tear which creates scarring. This scarring usually helps to weld the retina to underlying tissue.
- Freezing (Cryopexy)- the surgeon applies a freezing probe to the outer surface of the eye directly over the retinal defect and freezes the area around the tear. This once again creates a scar that helps secures the retina to the eyewall.
If the retina has fully detached, there are surgical options to repair it:
- Injecting air or gas into the eye (Retinopexy)- the bubble of air or gas will float against the retinal tear and the area surrounding the tear and seals the tear. This will stop the further flow of fluid into space behind the retina.
- Indenting the surface of the eye (Scleral Buckling)- The doctor sews a piece of silicone rubber or sponge to the white of your eye (Sclera). This material will indent the wall of the eye and relieves some of the pressure caused by the vitreous tugging on the retina.
- Draining and replacing the eye fluid (Vitrectomy)- the doctor removes the vitreous and any tissue that is pulling on the retina. Air, gas, or liquid is injected back into the retina to reattach the retina.
Source: Mayo Clinic
Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions resulting in optic nerve damage. This nerve damage is caused by abnormally high pressure in your eye. It could lead to the eventual loss of your eye.
It’s one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States. Glaucoma can damage your vision so gradually that someone may not notice the loss of vision until the disease is at an advanced stage, which makes an annual Indianapolis Eye Exam so vital to a diagnosis.
Primary open-angle glaucoma symptoms:
- Gradual loss of peripheral vision, usually in both eyes
- Tunnel vision in the advanced stages
Acute angle-closure glaucoma symptoms:
- Eye pain
- Nausea and vomiting (accompanying the severe eye pain)
- Sudden onset of visual disturbance, usually in low light
- Blurred vision
- Halos around lights
- Reddening of the eye
- Eyedrops- Eyedrops are usually the first step for relieving the eye pressure and draining fluid from the eyes.
- Oral Medications– Oral medications can reduce eye pressure. Side effects include frequent urination, a tingling sensation in the fingers and toes, depression, upset stomach, and kidney stones.
- Surgery– If eyedrops and oral medications don’t work, there are surgery options for treating glaucoma. Potential complications include infection, inflammation, bleeding, abnormally high or low blood pressure in the eye, and loss of vision.
- Laser Trabeculoplasty– Doctors can use a high-energy laser beam to open clogged drainage canals and help the fluid drain more easily from your eye.
- Trabeculectomy– Surgeons remove a small piece of eye tissue at the base of the cornea which allows fluid to drain from your eye and lowers the pressure on your eye.
Source: Mayo Clinic
Diabetic Retinopathy causes progressive damage to the retina and the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye in people with diabetes. It’s usually the result of damage to the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina and usually affects both eyes.
- Seeing spots or floaters in your field of vision
- Blurred vision
- Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your eye
- Difficulty seeing well at night
The treatment style for someone who is diabetic depends on the stage of the disease. Treatment focuses on how to slow the progression. If Diabetic Retinopathy is diagnosed early on, there may be no immediate treatment besides monitoring the progression of the disease. Changes in diet and exercise and keeping blood sugar levels controlled can help slow the progression of the disease.
If the disease advances, fluid from the blood vessels can leak and lead to Macular Edema. Photocoagulation is used to stop blood and fluids from leaking into the retina. A beam of light can be used to create small burns in the area around the retina with abnormal blood vessels to try and seal the leaks.
If a significant amount of blood has leaked into the vitreous fluid in the eye, it will cloud the vision. This will prevent laser Photocoagulation from being an option in your treatment. Instead, a procedure called Vitrectomy may be used to remove the blood-filled vitreous and replace it with a clear fluid to maintain the normal shape and health of the eye.
Source: American Optometrist Association
Hypertension Retinopathy is damage to the retina due to high blood pressure.
- Double vision, dim vision, or vision loss
If these symptoms appear suddenly, you should seek medical attention immediately.
The only way to treat Hypertension Retinopathy is by controlling blood pressure. Talking with a doctor about diet and exercise and in extreme cases, blood pressure medication.
If You're Experiencing Any Of These Symptoms, Contact your Eye Doctor for an Indianapolis Eye Exam
Please Note: This information is not meant to take the place of diagnosis. If you are experiencing any of the above symptoms, please seek immediate medical attention. If your issues aren’t chronic, however, you are still experiencing pain, schedule an appointment for an Indianapolis Eye Exam with Dr. Amy Walden and Associates today